MASONRY TESTING

SAYLOR PARK CEMENT KILNS
(COPLAY, PENNSYLVANIA)

Coplay Cement Company Kilns, presently known as the Saylor Park Industrial Museum honoring David Saylor (1827-1884), the father of the American Portland cement industry, is an open-air national historic site located in Coplay, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. The nine kilns were built in 1892-1893, and used for the production of Portland cement. They are constructed of locally produced red brick, and are known as Schoefer vertical kilns, and historic masonry mortars, a sample of which was received to determine the composition of the original mortar used in construction of one of the kilns.

GUTHRIE MEMORIAL LIBRARY
(HANOVER, PENNSYLVANIA)

The Guthrie Memorial Library has been Hanover’s Public Library since 1911. CMC provided petrographic examinations of mortar for repointing purposes during 2017 restoration.

J.T. HEDRICK ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING (CATAWBA COLLEGE, NORTH CAROLINA)

The building was originally constructed in 1926. CMC provided petrographic examinations of masonry mortar and brick samples for restoration purposes.

KNOX COUNTY COURTHOUSE
(GALESBURG, ILLINOIS)

The Knox County Courthouse in Galesburg was erected in 1884-1886.  CMC provided petrographic examinations of mortar samples for repointing purposes.

WHEELING SUSPENSION BRIDGE
(WHEELING, WEST VIRGINIA)

Built in 1849, the Wheeling Suspension Bridge in Wheeling, West Virginia spans 1010 ft. (310 m) between two towers across the Ohio River, and was honored as a National Historic Landmark on May 15, 1975. CMC provided petrographic examinations of mortar samples for restoration purposes.

ATLANTA VA MEDICAL CENTER
(DECATUR, GEORGIA)

CMC provided petrographic examinations of mortar samples for restoration purposes.

CUSTOM HOUSE
(KEY WEST, FLORIDA)

 One of South Florida’s most important historic buildings, Custom House in Key West, Florida was built in 1891. Originally, this unique Richardsonian Romanesque structure was designed to function as Key West’s customs office, post office, and courthouse and government center. Currently,

it houses a museum of art and history renovated by the Key West Art & Historical Society and features many centuries worth of art, history, and iconic figures. CMC provided petrographic examinations of mortar samples for restoration purposes.

MILANO LOFTS APARTMENTS
(LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA)

CMC provided petrographic examinations of mortar samples for repointing purposes.

WILLIAM MCKINLEY HIGH SCHOOL
(HONOLULU, HAWAII)

Originally founded as Fort
Street English Day School in 1865, the school was renamed in memorial to William McKinley, the twenty-fifth
President of the United States, in 1907. The High School is one of the oldest secondary schools in the state and several of its buildings have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. CMC provided petrographic examinations of mortar samples for restoration purposes.

YAQUINA HEAD LIGHTHOUSE
(NEWPORT, OREGON)

The 93 foot tower is located north of Newport, and has active since 1873.  CMC provided petrographic examinations of the exterior coatings for restoration purposes.

CLEMSON UNIVERSITY STUDENT ACTIVITIES CENTER
(CLEMSON, SOUTH CAROLINA)

CMC provided petrographic examinations of the masonry mortar for restoration purposes.

SALEM VA MEDICAL CENTER
(SALEM, VIRGINIA)

Salem Veteran Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) is one of the largest VA hospitals in Salem, Virginia. Since 1934 VAMC in Salem has been improving the health of the men and women who have so proudly served the United States. CMC provided petrographic examinations of the masonry mortar for repointing purposes.

VIRGINIA TECH WAR MEMORIAL GYMNASIUM (BLACKSBURG, VIRGINIA)

Virginia Tech War Memorial Hall, located on the Drillfield, houses one of the gyms on campus as well as Recreational Sports administrative offices for intramural sports and sport clubs. An alumni campaign to finance construction of a gymnasium to memorialize Techmen who had died in World War I began in 1919, and the resulting War Memorial Gymnasium was completed in 1926. Initially called the World War I Memorial Gymnasium, the structure was closed in 1972 for significant renovation and expansion, reopening in 1975. CMC provided petrographic examinations of masonry units and mortars for restoration purposes

FAYETTE COUNTY COURTHOUSE
(FAYETTEVILLE, WEST VIRGINIA)

Fayette County Courthouse is a historic courthouse located at Fayetteville, Fayette County, West Virginia. It was built in 1894-1895, and is a 2.5 story, five bay wide, rectangular building with projecting wings. The basement level is built of sandstone and faced in ashlar. Above that, the walls are of brick. It features a square tower with pyramidal roof. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. CMC provided petrographic examinations of the masonry mortars for restoration purposes.

COZAD-BATES HOUSE
(CLEVELAND, OHIO)

Cozad–Bates House, is the oldest and only surviving pre-Civil War structure in University Circle, Cleveland, Ohio. It is historically known for its involvement in the underground railroad. Andrew Cozad built the house in 1853. Architecturally, it is a rare surviving example of Italianate-influenced residential architecture in America at that time, which includes a hipped roof, curved bay windows, paired eave brackets, and prominent belvedere. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 and designated as a Cleveland Landmark in 2006. CMC provided petrographic examinations of the masonry mortars for restoration purposes.

CANAL STORES BUILDING
(SAULT STE MARIE CANAL, CANADA)

CMC provided petrographic examinations of the masonry mortar for restoration purposes.

ST. ELIZABETHS HOSPITAL, WEST CAMPUS (WASHINGTON D.C.)

St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington D.C. was opened in 1855 as the first federally operated psychiatric hospital in the United States. The west campus is owned by the federal government and is being redeveloped for use as headquarters for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. CMC provided examinations of original natural cement-lime mortars used in this building, and, proposed appropriate mortars for renovation.

FORT ZACHARY TAYLOR, EAST MARTELLO TOWER
(KEY WEST, FLORIDA)

Constructed during 1845 through 1866, Fort Zachary Taylor (named after President Zachary Taylor) is a trapezoid-shaped fort located off shore on the southwestern side of Key West Island, Florida. CMC provided petrographic examinations of mortar samples from the East Tower for restoration purposes.

FORT SUMTER (CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA)

Fort Sumter is a sea fort in Charleston, South Carolina, notable for two battles of the American Civil War. It was one of a number of special forts planned after the War of 1812, combining high walls and heavy masonry, and classified as Third System, as a grade of structural integrity. Work started in 1829, but was incomplete by 1860, when South Carolina seceded from the Union. CMC provided detailed laboratory examinations of original natural cement-lime masonry mortar and natural cement concrete used in the construction of the Fort.

FORT MOULTRIE (SULLIVAN'S ISLAND, SOUTH CAROLINA)

Fort Moultrie is a series of fortifications on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, built to protect the city of Charleston, South Carolina. The first fort, formerly named Fort Sullivan, built of palmetto logs, inspired the flag and nickname of South Carolina, as "The Palmetto State". The fort was renamed for the U.S. patriot commander in the Battle of Sullivan's Island, General William Moultrie. Fort Moultrie is the only area of the National Park System where the entire 171-year history of American seacoast defense (1776–1947) can be traced. CMC provided detailed laboratory studies of original masonry mortar used in the fort and provided mix proportion for the appropriate repointing mortar.

FORT MOTT (SALEM COUNTY, NEW JERSEY)

Fort Mott, located in Pennsville, Salem County, New Jersey, was part of a three-fort defense system designed for the Delaware River during the post bellum and Endicott program modernization periods following the American Civil War and in the 1890s. The fortifications seen today at Fort Mott were erected in 1896 in anticipation of the Spanish-American War. CMC examined cement-lime pointing mortars used during renovation of this fort.

FORT JACKSON (COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA)

Fort Jackson is a United States Army installation, located within the city of Columbia, South Carolina. This installation is named for Andrew Jackson, a United States Army General and seventh President of the United States of America. Fort Jackson was created in 1917 as the United States entered World War I. At the conclusion of World War I, Camp Jackson was shut down and the Camp was abandoned 25 April 1922 pursuant to General Orders War Department, 27 July 1921. Camp Jackson was reactivated for World War II. At the conclusion of World War II, the post was to have been deactivated by 1950; however, the outbreak of the Korean War caused the post to remain active and it is still functioning in the early 21st Century. CMC examined masonry cement pointing mortars used during renovation of this fort.

GREENSBORO HISTORY MUSEUM (GREENSBORO, NORTH CAROLINA)

The Greensboro History Museum, consisting of the former First Presbyterian Church of Greensboro and Smith Memorial Building, is a historic museum building located in Greensboro, North Carolina. The former Presbyterian church was built in 1892, and is a Romanesque Revival style brick building with a cross gable roof and tower. The semi-circular, 11 bay, Smith Memorial Building was built in 1903. The church and memorial building were connected and the older structures modified and renovated in 1938. Also located on the property is the First Presbyterian Church cemetery, established in 1812. The church vacated the property in 1929, and in 1937-1938 it was renovated and enlarged as the Richardson Civic Center and donated to the city of Greensboro. It subsequently housed the Greensboro Public Library, the Greensboro Historical Museum, and the Greensboro Art Center. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. CMC examined the hydraulic lime mortar and natural cement mortar used during original construction.

THE CANNON HOUSE OFFICE BUILDING (WASHINGTON D.C.)

The Cannon House Office Building, often called the "Old House Office Building," completed in 1908, is the oldest congressional office building as well as a significant example of the Beaux-Arts style of architecture. It occupies a site south of the United States Capitol bounded by Independence Avenue, First Street, New Jersey Avenue, and C Street S.E. In 1962 the building was named for former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Joseph Gurney Cannon. CMC examined hydraulic lime and natural cement mortars used during original construction of this building and suggested appropriate pointing mortars for renovations.

WEST POINT FOUNDRY (COLD SPRING, NY)

The West Point Foundry was an early ironworks in Cold Spring, New York, that operated from 1817 to 1911. Initiated after the War of 1812, it became most famous for its production of Parrott rifle artillery and other munitions during the Civil War, although it also manufactured a variety of iron products for civilian use. The increase of steel making and decreasing demand for cast iron after the Civil War caused it to become bankrupt gradually and cease operations during the early 20th Century. CMC examined dolomitic hydraulic lime and natural cement – lime mortars used during original construction and suggested appropriate pointing mortars for renovations.

BEDFORD COURTHOUSE (BEDFORD VA)

Built in 1930, the courthouse is the third structure on the East Main Street site. Monuments to veterans of the American Revolution, Civil War, World War I, World War II, Korea and Vietnam stand on the courthouse lawn as reminders of Bedford's great sacrifice for the cause of freedom. CMC examined slag cement and hydraulic lime mortar used in the courthouse and suggested appropriate pointing mortar for renovation.

DAKOTA APARTMENTS (MANHATTAN, NY)

The Dakota, also known as Dakota Apartments, is a cooperative apartment building located on the northwest corner of 72nd Street and Central Park West in the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City, United States. It was built in 1884 and is considered to be one of Manhattan's most prestigious and exclusive cooperative residential buildings. The Dakota is famous as the home of former Beatle John Lennon from 1973 to his murder in the archway of the building in 1980. CMC examined the high-calcium hydraulic lime mortar used in the original construction and suggested appropriate pointing mortar for renovation.

ST. FRANCIS OF ASSISI  CATHOLIC CHURCH (STAUNTON, VA)

The Staunton church was named St. Francis of Assisi. The church was sixty-five by forty feet and was paid for by Father Downey. He had also built and paid for a church at his previous pastorate in Lynchburg. St. Francis Church was brick, of Southern Colonial style with green shutters, large double windows, and a white picket fence. The inside was classic revival and was heated by two wood stoves. It was finished in time for the May 13, 1851, marriage of Robert Knightly and Joanna Moran, which event was solemnized with a Nuptial Mass. The church was dedicated in May 1851 by Bishop McGill. CMC examined a hydraulic lime mortar used during a 1895 construction of portion of the church and suggested appropriate pointing mortar for renovation.

SAN JACINTO MEMORIAL BUILDING, HOUSTON COMMUNITY COLLEGE (HOUSTON TX)

The San Jacinto Memorial Building, the nearly 100-year-old neo-classical and Art Deco masterwork on the campus of Houston Community College’s Central College, is included in the National Register of Historic Places on 2012. The building, constructed in 1914 has undergone a major renovation in 2012, and CMC provided laboratory studies of Portland cement – lime mortar, white Portland cement mortar, lime mortar, and slag-lime mortar used during various stages of renovations and suggested appropriate pointing mortars for 2012-2013 renovations.

HALEAKALA NATIONAL PARK STONE BUILDING  (MAUI, HI)

Haleakala National Park contains one of two volcanoes that make up the island of Maui, Hawaii. The West Maui Mountains were the first volcano to rise above sea level that make up modern day Maui some 2 million years ago. Haleakala is estimated to be around 1 million years old. US Department of Interior has provided a Portland cement – lime mortar sample from a wall along this trail to be examined and provide appropriate pointing mortar.

HALEMAU’U TRAIL (MAUI, HI)

Halemau’u Trail is located inside Haleakala National Park. This rather long trail starts at 7,990 ft. in the native scrubland ecosystem and leads down into the crater before traversing back up all the way to the summit of Haleakala. US Department of Interior has provided a Portland cement – lime mortar sample from a wall along this trail to be examined and provide appropriate pointing mortar.

HICKAM AIR FORCE BASE, HISTORIC SELECT HOUSING (HONOLULU, HI)

As part of preserving the historic homes built for officers and enlisted men from 1937 to 1941 at the Hickam Air Force Base in Honolulu, HI CMC provided analyses of cement-lime masonry mortars used in select houses and provided appropriate pointing mortars for renovations.

CATHEDRAL OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION (LAKE CHARLES, LOUISIANA)

The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is a Catholic cathedral located in Lake Charles, Louisiana, United States. It is the seat of the Diocese of Lake Charles, and it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Immaculate Conception Parish was established in 1869. CMC has examined some lime and gypsum-based plasters for restoration.

WESLEY UNITED METHODIST CHURCH (COLUMBIA, SC)

Wesley United Methodist Church is recognized as one of the oldest Gothic Architecture Structure Building in the down town Columbia area, and that the history of the church and its design deserved recognition for a Historic Marker. Wesley was built in 1910 and the  Historic Marker was approved in 2008. CMC examined a non-hydraulic high-calcium lime from the original construction used as a lime putty with silica sand, and proposed a modern equivalent hydraulic lime mortar for restoration.

FORT WASHINGTON, MARYLAND

Located in Prince George’s County, Maryland and constructed in 1809, Fort Washington guarded the nation’s capital until it was destroyed by its own garrison in August 1814 to prevent its capture by British forces advancing on Washington D.C. Reconstruction of the fort began in late 1814 or early 1815 and completed by 1824. As part of a recent renovation project, a variety of masonry mortars encompassing a large time period from the original construction era in the early 19th century to later renovation episodes during 20th century were collected from around the fort and analyzed to determine compositions of mortars used as well as propose suitable pointing mortars.

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